Kvaløy Nettverk offers linguistic evaluation services in languages of the former USSR and Asia. Linguistic evaluation is used in highly regulated industries where accuracy and professional expertise in the subject matter are vital. Kvaløy Nettverk provides linguistic evaluation to make sure that the language versions obtained are conceptually equivalent to the original text and to one another; that they are culturally relevant and acceptable to the target population within each target country; and that they are psychometrically comparable.

The process of linguistic evaluation at Kvaløy Nettverk consists of 9 stages described below.

Conceptual Definition

The original text is analysed and definition of concepts is found in order to clarify the concepts investigated in the source language to ensure that they are reflected appropriately in the target language. This steps also includes discussions with the Client. Based on the initial review, the Project Manager submits his/her findings to the Client for confirmation or clarification. All information provided by the Client is recorded in the project report.

Forward Translation

This step comprises translation, editing and proofreading in order to obtain a consensus target language version. At Kvaløy Nettverk, two independent translations are produced by two professional translators in the target language spoken in the target country. This is followed by a reconciliation meeting between the two forward translators and their Project Manager to obtain a consensus version. Based on this discussion, the consensus language version may be further modified.

Backward Translation

At this stage, quality of translation is assessed and controlled by back-translation of the text in target language into the source language. The forward consensus version is translated back into the source language by one independent translator. The conceptual content of forward consensus versions is checked by comparison of the source text with the backward translation. Discussions are held with the client. Based on this discussion, a second target language version will be created.

Pilot Testing

At this stage, an input is got from people representing future users or target audience of the translated text. Two more procedures take place simultaneously: the Cognitive Debriefing with a sample of respondents and expert review.

Cognitive Debriefing

This step is aimed at assessment of clarity, intelligibility, appropriateness, and cultural relevance of the target language version to the target population. The end users or target users are interviewed to test the interpretation of the translation.

Expert Review

Experts provide their input on the translation as to the domain-specific terminology. At this stage, Kvaløy Nettverk submits the target version to the appointed expert reviewer. The Reviewer makes comments and suggestions for changes in the translation and returns it to Kvaløy Nettverk. Feedback is also incorporated from potential end users or target audience of the translation. Suggestions retained are incorporated into the second target language version with the results of the cognitive debriefing, resulting in a third target language version of the text.

International Harmonization

International harmonization is aimed at ensuring consistency of translation decisions and use of colloquial language across countries and enhancing cross-cultural comparability. At this stage, the source text and the target language versions are compared, item by item, in order to harmonize solutions proposed for different languages. Subsequently, each target language version with revisions suggested during international harmonization is submitted to the appropriate Consultant who will review the suggestions and inform Kvaløy Nettverk whether they can be retained or explain why they should not be. Suggestions retained and incorporated into the target language version result in a fourth target language version of the text.


The fourth target language version undergoes at least two rounds of proofreading to ensure that no typing, spelling, or grammatical mistakes remain. Integration of relevant corections leads to the final target language version.


Kvaløy Nettverk writes a report to keep track of the work done, methodology followed, translation issues raised, and decisions made during the linguistic validation process. This report shall describe the translation methodology, a synthesis of the translation problems encountered and solutions retained in the course of the linguistic validation process. The report covers all languages included in the project.